And phone numbers, of course, use hyphens between the sets of three though you’ll likely see periods sometimes too. This guide establishes the rules you must use to develop and edit English web content published on the website. 0000013465 00000 n (The comma that comes before the conjunction is known as the Oxford or serial comma.) m�h���t�����t}�[����/�_C�Q��J)��R�6{x|��n+�4-�g/!�{-�F�#�K���r\㔳Y�e�p7뱶��X�,�k�bϓ=9�;�ݭ�8�cJ�p/�)9��%�eiG�fd:�k�9��w�����,�rs+cn_�n������8Z[/�[���b�ʈ���+qYDFE�6���5g솊mpO*a�3�ﭧhh8s,YrK ЅF4�[1�R�+�� ��&]���W%���;Ȏ����Zc�^S���k׊��c7!�q9���'n���ᅼX��Ϋ�r�!>ncX�+�9w(����j�)��^_;v�r��RŨ�b�Ѱ�]�b������K~��f4�&r�z���4��>/�x�m�$h� @]0�jv R���39��M�����N�. The default Chicago style for numbers one through ten is to spell them out, so “number one” works well. Further guidance can be found in New Hart’s Rules: The Oxford Style Guide and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. This guide explains how to apply the Oxford essay format in a piece of writing. Use periods (or full stops) between author initials but without spaces. You needn’t add commas for addresses or years. In relation to the oxford citation style, you need to insert superscript in your essay where you cite your work of other authors. twenty thousand. The Oxford Essay Format. JPs 5. Writing tip If a series contains more than three items or the items are long, consider a bulleted list to improve readability. endstream endobj 17 0 obj <>>>/Metadata 8 0 R/Outlines 13 0 R/Pages 14 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 18 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/Tabs/W/Thumb 6 0 R/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 841.89 595.276]/Type/Page>> endobj 19 0 obj <>stream It sets out writing rules that are different from practices adapted to print in order to support the writing principles for In this Guide, ‘style’ is synonymous with a set of accepted linguistic conventions; it therefore refers to recommended in-house usage, not to literary style. 0000003178 00000 n Superscript numbers should be placed at the end of a sentence, and follow any punctuation marks. If you want to flout the rules, do so for a reason and do so consistently every time that same reason is applicable in the manuscript. It is often called a style sheet, although that term also has other meanings.The standards can be applied either for general use, or be required usage for an individual publication, a particular organization, or a specific field. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. PAaL� ]B\d�܇�m%%����kZ �b`^R����2XD���! h�b```���[����(�����a�#��p F�W%I�� [FGX����� i ��0��$���M>R��t�D�=.>�z�'Lt�՞��9/�)K�Dž\|0k�.lb �Hlc� Ỳ � 1��t��@����*�g�0 #"� UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD STYLE GUIDE Quick reference A–Z. These and the New Oxford Spelling Dictionary may be ordered via the OUP website ( using your author discount of 40 per cent. This smells delicious. Large round numbers should be spelled out. 0000005225 00000 n Numerical Information in Spanish: Money: Use the American way to write numbers: Use: $1,276.50; Do not use: $1.276,59 ; Ordinal numbers – Commonly used: Dos and don’ts 3. 0 0000003293 00000 n Follow the International System of Units (SI) as a guide for units of measurement (see The author’s surname is placed first. 0000007042 00000 n one hundred. %PDF-1.4 %���� The paper itself has to be double-spaced along with the reference page. You have choices. Examples: 1. The Oxford documentary note referencing style The documentary-note system consists of the following elements: citations in the body of the paper, using a superscript (raised) number, generally at the end of a sentence a list of footnotes at the bottom (foot) of each page, for all citations on that page. endstream endobj startxref Q. NIST guides use American spelling. The exception to this rule—we said there would be a few—is the beginning of sentences. 0000027386 00000 n Also consider adding a glossary to longer documents, … It is arranged alphabetically with one letter per page, so you can easily find what you’re looking for. Fives and sixes 4. 0000009722 00000 n Examples: meter, liter, and deka, NOT metre, litre, and deca. The Eighties 10. h�bbd``b`�$V �;@��H�y���@B��j��@��!��"��[�`� � �uH��q��5���A�> � �- H�^%lL��Ab�t!�3} ` �r Numbers • spell out whole-number words for one to ten • use figures for 11 and above and for percentages, measurements and currency • if lots of numbers are in a piece of writing, use figures for all of them to allow for easy The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. 0000002306 00000 n Eg49R v Wang[1990] 2 NZLR 529 (CA). Save your file to a hard drive, an external drive, or OneDrive. 0000008277 00000 n 0000028607 00000 n In general, the website follows the AP Stylebook ; the most notable exception is that writing on the website always uses the serial (Oxford) comma. In certain contexts (such as referring to a list), you might opt for “number 1,” based on Chicago style for “page 1”, “table 1,” and other such expressions. In cases where there is no author for a reference, you can list these in alphabetic order according to the first most important word in the title. 0000014667 00000 n The tos and fros 13. It sits slightly above the line of text. Two Xs 15. At the bottom of the same page repeat the superscript number then follow it with the full details; including the page number, of the author's … Format the USAGov Contact Center phone number like this: 1-844-USA-GOV1 (1-844-872-4681). h�Ԙ�n���������Q���A(Ȗ���#�J�����JbM�2I9v���,%����v�A��\g�ÝgޕV"Zm��Zh+� W�-n��H%t"�����#"�q ����������s�wtrvquKHLJ�����������-.&*�����˓������������a���S&O�8���[��d}�JQ��3�5.\�x�ҹsfϚ �����hkZ���i��ypm�-�M�˗-]�x�B~t�L=Hj!��+Y�n=6׬^6r#ԑ`���B�ʓ3q��)S�� ��*7c;}�l޲uۦF����M � ��} PX �5/�`��=L�����m�͛p��� ���6�L��6}F��9`��T�U��B��i3�7ΙTV�]��=�bx�N� :|���'`>c������X�ɾ�{IPA!a�S03{��&N���xl���� �j���g����05b � �0��0�6o�:����s�}H9����8A��6��n��F���VC���z ,V|�- p���� E���9���8�:���b�C��!44M?����XZZډa ��p����;�VLZ�ұ�q֐�f.����:X5!�"+�T`x V ���� +��c� ���i���ء�?6�fi������( σ�|�iX×l�(6�9�@�a G�)�4�)���D�- The elements of the Oxford style guide include: Header – A writer has a right to place page numbers on the page at personal discretion. MU recommends following the guidelines of the Chicago Manual of Style and, for spelling, the Canadian Oxford Dictionary. Since texts have become increasingly digital, and the same document may often be found in several different sources, following a set of rigid rules no longer suffices. For “, above n x,” cross-references, repeat the case name and then write “, above n x,” followed by the pinpoint reference, where “x” is the earlier footnote number. 0000030446 00000 n 1980s 17. Ws(0�C�����6�=v��$ You should only use the initial letters of an author’s first name(s). 0000027971 00000 n No superscripts. Put a space after the superscript number. The follo… 52R v … 0000022711 00000 n The APA style guide, officially the … Usually, all margins are one inch on every side, except the top where margin should be two inches. '9��uo�-Ѧ�sa����es�*��:���\�hv�Á�Aq��ѕ�=&*M� Excellent advice on how to improve writing style is given in The Plain English Guide by Martin Cutts (Oxford University Press, 1999) and Style: Toward Clarity and Grace by Joseph M. 0000002529 00000 n Three Marys 14. Format a phone number (including toll-free numbers) like this: 1-202-720-2791. Spell out abbreviations/acronyms in full when they are first mentioned in text, for instance: Department of Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP). 0000019597 00000 n Number 1: Winter [January] Number 2: Spring [April] Number 3: Summer [July] Number 4: Fall [September] Italics & Quote Marks Italics are OK for emphasis (sparingly); book, journal, movie titles; TV and radio series titles; names of ships and spacecraft; words as … � ߙ����a`Xv H�1p�]�n��5+��\�[�W�_�����������Yh[dWl�����W�`_�X�T�\�R�Z�f�`�h�d�\�^�a�b�j�&�g�n�a�i�e�-�)�%�-�#�;�����Ϟ>w����{��;��؁�OڽsϮ�7n �1���f�k �T� endstream endobj 2355 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[355 1972]/Length 69/Size 2327/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream %PDF-1.7 %���� 0000013742 00000 n A. acronyms - always write out in first instance and define in parentheses; e.g., remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Where more than a single work by one author is being cited, list the works in date order. Examples Outlook includes Mail, Calendar, People, and Tasks. Moreover, Oxford citation style is the only referencing guide that uses footnotes at the bottom of the page unlike the in-text citation styles used by Harvard and A.P.A. Apostrophes should not be used in plural words, including abbreviations, names (with complete points or without), numbers, and in words that are not generally used in the form of nouns. Oxford Brookes writing style guide. 0000000896 00000 n 6, 2005, pp. all numbers from one to ten should be spelled out as whole-number words, and figures can be used just for numbers above ten. Rt Hon (no full stops) 6. buildings 7. place names 8. brand names 9. faculties, … 42 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<6277F94A99664C949CD3E7D3E6E7646B>]/Index[16 50]/Info 15 0 R/Length 116/Prev 60534/Root 17 0 R/Size 66/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream 0000012822 00000 n 2.3 million people. The paper’s font must be 12 or 14-point Times New Roman. All units and prefixes should be spelled as shown in this guide. 0000011108 00000 n Any references used in a text should be listed alphabetically according to the last name of the author. Ҍؙ��uE��0�J�(ѷ�ӵ�Ѷ..�)ԒҬ6�1625�2��0//�/5`�)���UP�SR�ՐVW�QU�������t�HI�L�������J�� In the Oxford style a superscript number is inserted at the point in your essay where you cite an author’s work. Oxford style requires little punctuation just if it is necessary to complete the meaning of the sentence. When citing sources, the first citation should be in full while the subsequent citations call for the use of just Authors surname-year-page format. Apart from that, drawing up an Oxford style citation list can be time-consuming and a tedious job to do. 0000021911 00000 n The under-ten or single-digit rule will suffice in most cases. It can be difficult to know how to write numbers in academic writing (e.g. $54 billion In addresses and running text, only use "d" not "nd" for abbreviation. 0000002751 00000 n h���1 0ð�Ԇs\Gb_��=ӓIR,�W��9��sx��9��sx�9� ��# endstream endobj 2328 0 obj <>/Metadata 353 0 R/Names 2329 0 R/PageLabels 344 0 R/Pages 347 0 R/StructTreeRoot 355 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 2329 0 obj <> endobj 2330 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 2/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 841.89 595.276]/Type/Page>> endobj 2331 0 obj <> endobj 2332 0 obj <>stream MLA is a style of documentation that may be applied to many different types of writing. 0000022331 00000 n Also referred to as the documentary-note system, the Oxford writing style is commonly used in subjects related to the humanities e.g. �%涑`ϡ�Y�e��e�g�;<. PhDs 6. 0000018886 00000 n When writing large numbers, you should add a comma to denote groups of three digits as in 123,456,789 or 15,999. Write out all nine numbers under 10, except for percentages; Use the word percent; not the percent sign (use twenty-three percent, not 23%) Symbols. Degree titles take the following form: BSc, MLitt, PhD. 2327 0 obj <> endobj xref 2327 30 0000000016 00000 n DO NOT USE BLOCK CAPITALS FOR LARGE AMOUNTS OF TEXT AS IT’S QUITE HARD TO READ. 0000021560 00000 n A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. And style choices sometimes get to stomp all over the rules. SOSs 8. This A-Z guide provides clear, easy-to-search guidance on style, spelling and grammar for the Oxford Brookes website and print communications. The exceptions to this are proper nouns, including: 1. departments (specific government departments - see below) 2. the Civil Service, with lower case for ‘the’ 3. specific job titles 4. titles like Mr, Mrs, Dr, the Duke of Cambridge (the duke at second mention); Pope Francis, but the pope 5. h�b```b``�``e``���π ��,�{�%�A��c,w6\�2WQ2i����W�-A The three Rs 12. For a comprehensive list of the rules concerning numbers, check out the Chicago Manual of Style or another style guide. times when you might expect to use words but should instead use numerals. Do not use full stops in abbreviations: eg, am, pm, op, no, cf, ie, ed, etc or after Mr, Mrs, Prof or Dr. two thousand. Always spell out the number even if it is 10 or higher. 40, no. Journal of Cooking, vol. Always use lower case, even in page titles. 272-273. �Opfa�wH�����¨����?`�0203H��c���w��`g`U�b00�� �V}-P Make the margins a single inch everywhere but the top; 2 inches at the top of each page! Numbers, Symbols, Dates, Time, and Places Numbers. 0000002714 00000 n 16 0 obj <> endobj H���[�+� E�= 0000018447 00000 n The ins and outs 11. Include the superscript numbers on that page. five or 5, 1 million or 1,000,000).This section gives some guidelines on when to use words to write numbers, and when to use numerals.There are also some exceptions to the rule which are considered, i.e. Introduction and General Writing Guidelines; Punctuation; Titles; Dates; Numbers; Inclusivity and Equity; Introduction and General Writing Guidelines. The size of your footer will depend on how many sources you cited on a particular page. Whys and whatnots 16. 7 Numbers How to write numbers | 7 Times | 7 Dates | 8 Spans of numbers and years | 8 9 Punctuation Apostrophe | 9 Brackets | 10 Bullet points | 11 Colon and semicolon | 11 Comma | 12 Dashes and hyphens | 13 Ellipsis | 15 Full stop, exclamation mark and question mark | 15 Quotation marks | 16 UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD STYLE GUIDE If you prefer, you may use a reference tag to refer to the case: see rule 2.3.2. in subjects such as philosophy and history. The Oxford Manual of Style once stated, “If you take hyphens seriously you will surely go mad.” Hyphens belong to that category of punctuation marks that will hurt your brain if you think about them too hard, and, like commas, people disagree about their use in certain situations. 10 yards Avoid what is at times called the ‘greengroc… D�0JH#��A(��U���d�&*Ġ��2�D(�� capital letters should be used for … Writing Style Guide; Writing Style Guide. Several Our Fathers 7. 0000019448 00000 n trailer <]/Prev 344774/XRefStm 2306>> startxref 0 %%EOF 2356 0 obj <>stream Dates 65 0 obj <>stream Papers written in Oxford style require indicating page numbers, but they can be put according to the writer’s judgment. �aC�p�Ѓ���&;f1~�ؐg�ĸI����� N,p=�h�p��?����4�0(0��M0�.�}#��9��.� X��$xr��.�-0a� ��|A����.cC�Q�'� ƌ7����M�t��jX�;K� For example, the superscript number is bold: 1 T. Rock. Oxford writing style guide necessitates a chronological numbering of endnotes and footnotes. Side comments are also indicated at … 0000014420 00000 n Three dry Januarys 9. Both the Joneses 2. At the bottom of a similar page, you need to repeat superscript number then follow it with complete detail. M��D�G�� �ѝ �����6UU�O�$�� ǢJrs�R�!�_n��_S���o�a�� Phone Numbers. Unless the symbol is part of a name or branding, use the word (e.g., use the word and instead of an ampersand & or a plus sign +). %%EOF 250,000 (not quite “round” enough) Very large numbers or dollar amounts should be expressed in figures (see CMS 9.8).